English Grammar Review
Adjectives and Adverbs
Many adverbs are formed from adjectives, by adding an ly ending.
The usual suspects are usually nearby. [adjective, adverb]
A real earthquake in Chile is really annoying. [adjective, adverb]
Some adjectives, however, already end in ly: costly, friendly, lively.
And some words that end in ly function as both adjectives and adverbs: early, only, daily, quarterly, yearly.
Vicente arrives at an early hour. [adjective]
His new job began early last month. [adverb]
Carla is the only translator in the office. [adjective]
We only hope one is enough. [adverb]
Martina needs her daily coffee. [adjective]
Four cups is what she drinks daily. [adverb]
Some words that do not end in ly also function as both adjective and adverb: fast, long.
A fast talker is someone who talks fast. [adjective, adverb]
He thought long about what to do if it were a long winter in the Santiago fog. [adverb, adjective]
Some adverbs have two forms and two definitions:
Send the goods direct.
[meaning: with no detours]
You are directly responsible.
[meaning: no one in between]
Ms. Diaz arrived late.
[meaning: after the expected time]
We haven't seen her lately.
[meaning: in recent times]
Mr. Gonzalez is working too hard.
[meaning: with great effort]
We could hardly hear him.
[meaning: with great difficulty]
Some adverbs have two forms but are idiomatic in use:
Come close; watch closely.
Be fair; treat fairly.
Go slow; proceed slowly.
Some prepositions become adverbs when they are used to form a verb phrase.
Read it in the report; trade in your car.
Don't keep it off the books; write off your losses.
Drop it on the desk; put on a performance.
Run up the mountain; look up the definition.
[Prepositions are underlined. Adverbs are in bold.]
Lesson: Adverb Forms
Module: Adjectives and Adverbs
Course: English Grammar Review