English Grammar Review
Adjectives and Adverbs

Adverb Forms

Many adverbs are formed from adjectives, by adding an ly ending.

The usual suspects are usually nearby. [adjective, adverb]

A real earthquake in Chile is really annoying. [adjective, adverb]

Some adjectives, however, already end in ly: costly, friendly, lively.

And some words that end in ly function as both adjectives and adverbs: early, only, daily, quarterly, yearly.

Vicente arrives at an early hour. [adjective]

His new job began early last month. [adverb]

Carla is the only translator in the office. [adjective]

We only hope one is enough. [adverb]

Martina needs her daily coffee. [adjective]

Four cups is what she drinks daily. [adverb]

Some words that do not end in ly also function as both adjective and adverb: fast, long.

A fast talker is someone who talks fast. [adjective, adverb]

He thought long about what to do if it were a long winter in the Santiago fog. [adverb, adjective]

Some adverbs have two forms and two definitions:

Send the goods direct.
[meaning: with no detours]

You are directly responsible.
[meaning: no one in between]

Ms. Diaz arrived late.
[meaning: after the expected time]

We haven't seen her lately.
[meaning: in recent times]

Mr. Gonzalez is working too hard.
[meaning: with great effort]

We could hardly hear him.
[meaning: with great difficulty]

Some adverbs have two forms but are idiomatic in use:

Come close; watch closely.

Be fair; treat fairly.

Go slow; proceed slowly.

Some prepositions become adverbs when they are used to form a verb phrase.

Read it in the report; trade in your car.

Don't keep it off the books; write off your losses.

Drop it on the desk; put on a performance.

Run up the mountain; look up the definition.

[Prepositions are underlined. Adverbs are in bold.]

Lesson: Adverb Forms
Module: Adjectives and Adverbs
Course: English Grammar Review